1. Think of a time you met someone from another country. How did you know they were a foreigner? Did their behaviour seem different than yours?
2. Given your reflections above, do you think cultural awareness is important in the hospitality industry?
3. What can YOU do to make these people feel welcome in your country?
• Hotel General Manager
• English as global language for business and travel.
• Purpose of travel to assist decision-making in customer service.
• Visible / invisible aspects of culture
• Identifying visitors
• Word stress
• Stressing vowels
• Word stress patterns
• Differentiating hotels and resorts
• Introducing hotel departments and occupations
• Exploring hotel room (common/luxury)
• Continents, nations and nationalities
• Common English words and phrases
• Hotel/resort amenities
• Hotel departments and occupations
• Items in hotel rooms
• Thinking in English (no translating)
• Develop a cultural awareness section for customer service training
• Amenities, nearby attractions, price involved with choosing a place to stay.
1.1 Career connection
Hotel General Manager
The General Manager must be aware of both the guests and staff, and the cultural differences that they bring to the property.
They need to have staff who are aware of the many different needs of the different traveller types that visit for the business to be a success.
The General Manager functions as the primary leader of the property with responsibility for all aspects of the operation, including guest and employee satisfaction, human resources, financial performance, sales
and revenue generation.
The duties of a hotel general manager vary greatly depending on the size of the hotel and company organization. For example, general managers of smaller hotels may be directly responsible for accounting,
human resources, payroll, and other duties that would normally be handled by other managers or entire departments in a larger hotel.
Skills & Competencies
• Active listening and interpersonal skills.
• Ability to lead teams and organize many projects at once.
• Critical thinking skills.
• Business and financial skills.
1.2 English as the global language
Communicating in English
There are more than 380 million people around the world speaking English as a first language, and over 753 million speaking it as a second language. In 2019, over 32 million international guests visited China. Many of these visitors can communicate in English.
Many countries have made English their official second language, and schools across the world are teaching basic English skills to their students. English has become the common language of international business. Speaking a common language adds to your guest’s experience.
Imagine you are visiting a country where you cannot speak the language. Now think about how grateful you would feel if someone tried to communicate with you in your own language, even if they only knew a few words.
Your challenge is to speak to your guests in a language they can understand. Your grammar does not have to be perfect. If you don’t know a word, your guest will often help you.
Remember, you are doing something that most of your guests
cannot do. — you are communicating in a second language.
全球有超过3.8亿人将英语作为第一语言，超 过 7.53 亿人将英语作 为第二语言。2019年，来到中国的国际游客超过了3200万人，而他们当中的大多数可以用英语交流。
不要忘了，你正在做一件大多数客人都做不到的事 — 你正在使用第二语言进行及交流。
Stop translating and internalize the language
When you were first beginning to learn English, you needed to translate words into your native language. It was a very slow process. Thinking in English (without translating), helps you internalize the language.
When you think in English, you learn the language faster and have an easier time speaking out loud. By “speaking” English in your mind, it’s easier to speak it with your mouth! Thinking in English is also an excellent way to build your vocabulary with common words you’ll actually use. This is because as you go through your day, thinking in English, many words or actions are repeated, and you’ll learn them
When you internalize information, you learn it so well that you no longer need to think about it. Internalizing English means you don’t need to remember the rules and pronunciations every time you speak… you just speak.
You need to THINK in English, if you are going to SPEAK in English. No need to translate. No need to be perfect. It is enough to COMMUNICATE what they need to hear!
How to think in English
1. Stop translating. Start small, think in single words.
2. Talk to yourself in your head in English. Narrate what you are doing,
have a conversation where you are speaking both sides.
3. Talk to yourself out loud in English. Don’t focus too much on the perfect words.
4. Build your vocabulary. A VERY effective tool for this is to leave sticky
notes of English words all over objects in your home. Think about them in English while you use them, such as door, washroom, light, clothes, television etc. It’s good practice to use an English to English dictionary.
International visitors coming to China
Visitors come to China for business or personal reasons; to make sales or order products, or simply to visit, explore, and experience the culture. Most of them will want to see and do many different things during their stay.
It’s your job to make them feel welcome. They rely upon you for guidance. You want to help them enjoy their time and encourage them to come back… again and again.
1.3 Cultural awareness in service
Culture can be defined as a system of beliefs and values shared by a particular group of people. It affects how we act, how we dress, even what we like to eat. Culture touches every aspect of our lives.
Providing excellent customer service is essential to create a memorable experience, but it can be challenging. People from different cultures will have different views on what good customer service is.
The importance of being aware of other cultures
Have you ever had someone stand too close to you while talking with you? It can be very uncomfortable, and end up leading to miscommunications.
A North American may take a step back to reach a comfortable distance, while a Japanese may take a step forward to compensate for their feeling of comfort. This was actually documented In “Body
Language”, where authors Allan and Barbara Pease analyzed video footage from a business conference. It appeared this stepping back and forward was a type of dance when the video was played at faster speeds.
The above example is just the beginning… like an iceberg, the majority of the differences lie beneath the surface.
Culture is about values and beliefs, and the behaviors that flow from them.
The Cultural Iceberg
The visible aspects of culture are easy to see because they are above the surface. These include the language, greetings, food preferences and dress.
The greatest, and sometimes the most important, part of an individual’s culture is hidden below the surface. These include: customs, values and the many ‘invisible’ rules that define each culture.
With so many differences, how can we make our guests feel welcomed and respected? It all starts with inter-cultural skills. Having good inter-cultural skills can help you communicate in a sensitive and flexible manner. You become aware of differences that exist across cultures. You learn to react appropriately and communicate effectively.
Understanding cultural differences will help you to give good customer service to your international guests. People may behave and interact in different ways due to their own cultural experiences. Be aware of how you can interact with them to enhance their experience of your culture.
The best way to develop cultural awareness is to step back and take a look at yourself. You need to be aware of some of your OWN attitudes, your OWN beliefs, and your OWN behaviors.
Examples of cultural differences
• Personal space and how close they will stand to others
• Touching, hugging, kissing
• Eye contact (duration, intensity)
• Body language and gestures
• Emotional reaction to situations (especially stress)
• Communication styles (choice of words, how direct/polite)
• Customs, politics and religions.
Raising cultural awareness
Improve your cultural knowledge by:
• Learning more about the cultures you are likely to come in contact with.
• Learning how gestures, body language and greetings are used in other cultures to communicate. Watch others to build your knowledge.
• Understanding how people see and respond to you.
• Understanding your own biases and learn to see things from another person’s perspective.
• Not treating others the way you want to be treated. Instead, try to learn how they want to be treated. What is viewed as polite in one culture may be considered rude in another.
• Always address adults by their last (family) name unless they have asked you to use their first name.
• Maintain respect! Respect for people, respect for culture, and respect for differences.
1.4 Cultural Perspective
Cultural perspective plays a significant role in how we think, and our perspective of situations. A cultural perspective is the point of view from which each individual sees the same situation – when culture is layered on top of point of view. It means that someone is seeing a situation based upon their beliefs, values, experiences that are commonly found in their own culture.
Example: Chinese people often smile when embarrassed, which may make Americans think they aren’t being taken seriously.
Seeing things from another point of view
It’s important to not only learn about the differences between cultures, but also to begin trying to see things from their perspective. It’s easier to deal with customers when you understand where they come from and how they think.
Learn something new
Learn something new by looking at things from the perspective of other people, you become aware of their wants and needs.
Look at things differently
What would you do, feel or say if you saw things from their perspective? How can you adjust your attitude towards them?
Listen for the message behind the words
Listening helps you see things from their point of view. Don’t make up your mind that the other person is wrong until you have heard and understood what they have to say.
Remember that background influences exist
People from different regions have had different experiences as children and have different points of view on things. Adapt yourself to their needs.
Consider both sides
By considering both sides, you will know more about the situation and make better service decisions.
1.5 Word stress in English
Word stress is the key to understanding and being understood in
Word stress is as important to English as using tones is to Chinese. In Chinese, even if someone is making the correct sounds, the wrong tone makes it very difficult for a listener to understand what the speaker is saying. It’s the same with word stress in English. If words are stressed improperly, the listener will have to work harder to understand the message being communicated. Stressing the wrong syllable can make the word very difficult to hear and understand.
Applying word stress begins with understanding syllables. A syllable is a unit of organization for speech sounds. For instance “hotel” has two syllables; “ho” and “tel”. Focusing some attention on mastering the
concept of syllables will help you in both your spoken and written Eng
使用单词重音首先要理解音节。音节是读音的组织单元。例如，”hotel”有两个音节，“ho” 和 “tel”。注重掌握音节的概念
The dictionary definition for a syllable is: “a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word.”
You can also think of syllables as single, unbroken sounds of a spoken word. Sometimes syllables are referred to as the “beats” of language.
What is word stress?
Every word in the English language contains syllables, and every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i, o or u and sometimes y).
In all words of two or more syllables, one syllable (stressed syllable) is spoken stronger than the others (unstressed syllables) in the same word.
BA-si-cal-ly, we say one SYL-la-ble more FORCE-ful-ly than OTH-ers.
BA-si-cal-ly, we say one SYL-la-ble more FORCE-ful-ly than OTH-ers.
A stressed syllable is louder, longer, clearer and higher pitched than an
An unstressed syllable is spoken quieter, faster, and lower pitched than a stressed syllable.
Word stress rules(patterns)
1. One word can only have one stress.
2. Only vowels can be stressed (a, e, i, o, u, y).
The “Clear Speech” Rubber Band Method
In English, some syllables are stressed (said longer, louder, or higher), while others are unstressed. Most times, the key to word stress is the length of the syllable. Stressed vowels are held longer. An excellent way to practice word stress is to use Judy Gilbert’s
“Clear Speech” rubber band method. The rubber band becomes a visual aid for length variation in the syllables.
Use the thumbs of each hand to hold the ends of the rubber band.
Say words or phrases as you stretch (stressed syllables) and relax
(unstressed syllables) the rubber band. This shows the rhythm and the amount of time a sound is held.
Generally, content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives) are stressed and structure words are unstressed. Pull the ends of the rubber band apart for stressed words or syllables.
“ Clear Speech” 橡皮筋练习法
词重音的方法是使用Judy Gilbert’s的”Clear Speech”橡皮筋练习法。用橡皮筋作为直观展示音节长度变化的辅助工具。用两只手的拇指勾住橡皮筋的末端。 在说出单词或短语时，随着重读音节和非重读音节，拉伸或放松橡皮筋。这种方法将向你展示发音的节奏和持续的时间。
1.6 Common English words & phrases
Most common words in the English language
Below is a list of the top 100 most used words in the English language. There have been several large scale studies that estimate and rank common words. Perhaps the most comprehensive analysis is one that was conducted against the Oxford English Corpus (OEC), a very large collection of texts from around the world that are written in the English language.
Memorizing and mastering the usage of the following words will go a long way in helping you speak or write English.
The New General Service List
Another great learning tool for English is The New General Service List (NGSL). It is a list of approximately 2,800 core vocabulary words published by Dr. Charles Browne, Dr. Brent Culligan and Joseph Phillips in March 2013. The words in the NGSL represent the most important high frequency words of the English language for second language learners of English. Although there are more than 600,000 word families in the English language, the 2,800 words in the NGSL give more than 90% coverage for learners when trying to read most general texts of English.
More info about this list can be found here: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_General_Service_List
Most Common Hospitality phrases
The following section gives you a selection of common phrases you might say or hear and questions you may give or receive from guests. These will be covered in some form during the program, but it is good to familiarize yourself with them as they will come up again and again during your career.
1.7 Hotels vs resorts
Hotels and Resorts are the two main types of lodging properties. The guest will have particular expectations for each type.
Hotel: Provides accommodation, meals and basic amenities.
Resort: Combines a hotel with a variety of activities and attractions
Purpose of Stay
Resorts are places, towns or commercial establishments that provide recreation and relaxation over and above accommodation, meals and basic amenities. Basically, a resort combines a hotel with a variety of activities and attractions, while a hotel is a place that offers lodging and meals.
A person’s purpose of stay is the biggest factor when choosing
the type of lodging property. Once the type has been determined, however, many cultural and lifestyle influences will be factors in which resort or hotel they will stay at. These influences affect the guest’s perspective and expectations. Knowing those expectations will help us determine their needs.
1.8 Careers in hospitality
Hotels vary in size and what they have to offer. As such, the number of departments and staff vary greatly. A small hotel may have an owner that works the front desk, and one cleaner that maintains the property; whereas a large destination resort could have over 1,000 employees!
In most hotels, the general manager is responsible for all aspects of the hotel. He or she needs to organize staff, keep up with the demands of the guests, and still turn a profit for the owners. In larger hotels, the
general manager leads teams of staff in various departments and divisions.
Climbing the ladder
The skills you will learn and perfect during this program are called interchangeable, or transferable, skills. This means they can “transfer” to any department or career path in hospitality and tourism that you choose.
The hospitality industry offers a lot of opportunity for advancement. You can quickly move up to higher positions, and create a long lasting and exciting career.
Here are two examples of upward movement; one in the Food & Beverage department, the other working your way up through the Front Office.
1.9 The hotel room
The primary purpose of a hotel has always been to provide a place for travellers to sleep. Nowadays people want a “home away from home”, including an office, a gym, a spa, a place for a romantic date, and a
gateway to adventure.
The hotel room is still at the core of why hotels exist. They vary from small, shared rooms to lavish suites. In most, however, you will find the basic amenities you need to have a comfortable rest. A bed, a bathroom, a few comforts (such as a TV or a desk) and privacy.
Play the game
BINGO is a fun game that helps with listening and speaking skills. Use the chapter vocabulary list (key terms) from this unit to play.
• BINGO card
• BINGO Markers, roughly 25 (Use small ripped up pieces of paper or mark with a pencil)
How to play:
Players fill in the 24 boxes on their bingo card with random words from the key terms list. Use words only once. The teacher or a student can be the “caller”. The caller calls out words from the list (and writes or
marks which ones were called for reference), saying them twice. Players use their “markers” to place on top of the words that have been called.
How to win:
If you get a line on your card (horizontal, vertical, diagonal) you yell out “BINGO!”. The caller then confirms that you marked the same words he/she had said.
*ALTERNATE: You can continue playing until you get an “X”, a “box” or even a “blackout” where the entire board gets covered.
Culture & Communication
• Culture can be defined as a system of beliefs and values shared by a particular group of people. It affects how we act, how we dress, even what we like to eat. Culture touches every aspect of our lives。
• You can raise your cultural awareness by: learning more about the cultures you are likely to come in contact with; learning how gestures, body language and greetings are used in other cultures to communicate; examining your own cultural preferences and biases, and observing similarities and differences to international guests.
• You can learn something new by looking at things from the perspective of others. Being aware of cultural difference.
• English has become the common language of international business. Thinking in English (without translating), helps you internalize the language. When you think in English, you learn the language faster and have an easier time speaking out loud.
• Word stress is the key to understanding and being understood English. Word stress is as important to English as using tones is to Chinese. Word stress rules (patterns): one word can only have one main stress; only vowels can be stressed (a, e, i, o, u, y). Words of two or more syllables used as nouns, verbs or adjectives may be stressed on different syllables when spoken.
• The verbs used in operating instructions for items in the hotel room include turn on/ turn off (lights/ television/jacuzzi / tub/ computer / stove / water / dishwasher / shower) and open/close (windows / drapes / curtains / sofa-bed /door / cabinet / lid / refrigerator). Required vocabulary for all staff from.
• The General Manager must be aware of both the guests and staff, and the cultural differences that they bring to the property. They need to have staff who are aware of the many different needs of the different traveller types that visit for the business to be a success. The General Manager oversee the efficient functioning of all the departments in the facility: Accounting & Financial Management; Food & Beverage; Front Office; Guest Services; Housekeeping; Human Resources; Engineering; Sales & Marketing Security.
• Most visitors come to China for business or personal reasons. Knowing the purpose of travel will assist decision making in customer service. The majority of international visitors come from South Korea, Japan, the USA, or Russia; their common language is often English.
• Accommodation choices include hotels (provides room, meals and basic amenities) and resorts (combine hotel with a variety of activities and attractions). A person’s purpose of stay is the biggest factor when choosing the type of lodging property (business/pleasure) The purpose of stay, combined with cultural influences and lifestyle.
• Understanding cultural differences and being aware of cultural preferences will help you to give good customer service to your international guests. Become aware of some of your OWN attitudes, your OWN beliefs, and your OWN behaviours so you can adapt to each guest and provide personal customer service.
• Interchangeable, or transferable, skills can be applied to any department in hospitality/tourism; this includes industry knowledge, speaking and listening. People who enter at an entry-level job are eligible for supervisory or management positions as they gain experience.